7-2-5. Digestive System Regulation
The brain is the control center for the sensation of hunger and satiety. The functions of the digestive system are regulated through neural and hormonal responses.
Neural Responses to Food
In reaction to the smell, sight, or thought of food, like that shown in Figure 1, the first hormonal response is that of salivation. The salivary glands secrete more saliva in response to the stimulus presented by food in preparation for digestion. Simultaneously, the stomach begins to produce hydrochloric acid to digest the food. Recall that the peristaltic movements of the esophagus and other organs of the digestive tract are under the control of the brain. The brain prepares these muscles for movement as well. When the stomach is full, the part of the brain that detects satiety signals fullness. There are three overlapping phases of gastric control—the cephalic phase, the gastric phase, and the intestinal phase—each requires many enzymes and is under neural control as well.
The response to food begins even before food enters the mouth. The first phase of ingestion, called the
Hormonal Responses to Food
One of the important factors under hormonal control is the stomach acid environment. During the gastric phase, the hormone
In the duodenum, digestive secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play an important role in digesting chyme during the intestinal phase. In order to neutralize the acidic chyme, a hormone called
Link to Learning
Visit this website to learn more about the endocrine system. Review the text and watch the animation of how control is implemented in the endocrine system.
Another level of hormonal control occurs in response to the composition of food. Foods high in lipids take a long time to digest. A hormone called
Understanding the hormonal control of the digestive system is an important area of ongoing research. Scientists are exploring the role of each hormone in the digestive process and developing ways to target these hormones. Advances could lead to knowledge that may help to battle the obesity epidemic.
The brain and the endocrine system control digestive processes. The brain controls the responses of hunger and satiety. The endocrine system controls the release of hormones and enzymes required for digestion of food in the digestive tract.
Which hormone controls the release of bile from the gallbladder
Which hormone stops acid secretion in the stomach?
Describe how hormones regulate digestion.
Hormones control the different digestive enzymes that are secreted in the stomach and the intestine during the process of digestion and absorption. For example, the hormone gastrin stimulates stomach acid secretion in response to food intake. The hormone somatostatin stops the release of stomach acid.
Describe one or more scenarios where loss of hormonal regulation of digestion can lead to diseases.
There are many cases where loss of hormonal regulation can lead to illnesses. For example, the bilirubin produced by the breakdown of red blood cells is converted to bile by the liver. When there is malfunction of this process, there is excess bilirubin in the blood and bile levels are low. As a result, the body struggles with dealing with fatty food. This is why a patient suffering from jaundice is asked to eat a diet with almost zero fat.
gastric inhibitory peptide